Volume 7 Issue 1 (March 2020)

Pages 118-125

Exploration of the Antifungal Potential of Indonesian Propolis from Tetragonula biroi Bee on Candida sp. and Cryptococcus neoformans

Muhamad Sahlan, Davita Kristabel Mandala, Diah Kartika Pratami, Robiatul Adawiyah, Anondho Wijarnako, Kenny Lischer, Ahlan Fauzi


Fungal infection is one of the existing diseases in Indonesia. The most common fungal infections are the candidiasis and cryptococcosis disease which is caused by Candida sp. and Cryptococcus sp. fungi respectively. Propolis is known to have antifungal properties to Candida sp. and Cryptococcus sp. However, the compounds contained in propolis differs according to its source; the bee that produces it, and its environment, differentiating also its antifungal potential. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Indonesian propolis, specifically from Tetragonula biroi bee as an antifungal agent in hopes to discover its ability as candidiasis and cryptococcosis drugs. The propolis used in the study was Indonesian propolis produced by Tetragonula biroi bee. The antifungal potential of Indonesian propolis was discovered by observing its antifungal activity to a few species of Candida and Cryptococcus and determining its content. Two types of Indonesian propolis, smooth and rough propolis in the form of ethanol extract propolis (EEP) were tested on Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and Cryptococcus neoformans with the disc diffusion method. Ethanolic extract of Indonesian propolis is further tested with LC-MS/MS analysis. The content of Indonesian propolis itself in the form of polyphenol and flavonoid is discovered with the help of UV-Vis Spectrometry where it was discovered that smooth propolis has higher phenolic and flavonoid level at 18.32% and 17.45% respectively. Ethanolic extract of Indonesian propolis is further tested with LC-MS/MS procedure which results in the founding of three antifungal compounds. Adhyperforin was found in both rough and smooth propolis, and deoxypodophyllotoxin, as well as kurarinone, was found only in smooth propolis. Based on our study, Indonesian propolis is proven to have antifungal potential though its effectivity differs from one species of fungi to another where on Candida albicans, C. krusei, C.tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, rough propolis shows the higher diameter of inhibition.

Keywords: Candida sp.; Cryptococcus sp.; disc diffusion; fungal infection, propolis