The limitation of fossil energy resources and the increasing need for fossil fuels encourage the development of renewable energy resources. An alternative energy currently being developed such as biomass utilized as an alternative fuel in motorized vehicles are bioethanol. This Paper discusses the development of research on the utilization of bioethanol in Indonesia, starting from low- grade ethanol distillation into high grade up until the utilization of additives in a mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on internal combustion engine. Bioethanol fuel mainly produced by sugar fermentation process from biomass, it can also be manufactured by chemical process. Today the use of bioethanol in Indonesia as fuel still very low, however the production of low-grade bioethanol often found as a type of beverage consumed by certain communities, both traditional and industrial scale. In Indonesia, bioethanol mixture to be a fuel is usually anhydrous ethanol with a concentration of >99.5%. If fully used as fuel it is necessary to modify the engine, but if it is mixed with the gasoline then the engine modification is not required. The addition of bioethanol to gasoline will certainly change the fuel properties, the fuel will be more difficult to self-ignite so the pressure generated in the combustion chamber will be more consistent.
Keywords: Alternative energy, Bioethanol, Gasoline, Internal combustion engine